WW2 leaflet propaganda: “The way of all flesh”

The use of airborne leaflet propaganda during times of conflict was first seen in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, when the defenders of Paris dropped leaflets over the besieging German troops from a hot air balloon, proclaiming their defiance. However, hot air balloons and the like were slow and unwieldy, and it wasn’t until the First World War that the potential of airborne leaflet propaganda could be properly realised, by dropping leaflets from aeroplanes. Methods of distribution became more sophisticated in the Second World War, with new types of bomb invented specifically to drop thousands of leaflets over enemy territory.

Leaflet propaganda was chiefly designed to break enemy morale, and was used against both civilians and soldiers, though the latter remained the chief target. Writers of propaganda hoped to appeal to the most basic human instincts: fear, self-preservation, love of family, and romantic/sexual jealousy. Both the Germans and the Japanese designed leaflets to appeal to the romantic nostalgia and sexual jealousy of Allied troops far from home, who were missing their sweethearts and quite possibly worried about what they might be getting up to in their absence.

The most basic of these leaflets were designed along the lines of two lovers in a passionate kiss. In the image, typically, the soldier passionately kisses his sweetheart before heading off for Europe or the Pacific. The accompanying text aims to induce nostalgia for peacetime, thus awakening (or encouraging) a desire to have the war end and get back home.

Nazi propaganda for American soldiers...
Nazi propaganda for Americans…
...and the Japanese equivalent
…and the Japanese equivalent











A number of German-produced leaflets resorted to even more desperate tactics to make Allied soldiers wish that the war was at an end so they could go home. They played on the jealous fears of the average British and American soldier that ‘their’ woman might be unfaithful back home while they were out fighting. Obviously the women in these sorts of pictures were especially glamorous, merely serving as a ‘type’ onto which British and American soldiers could project their own wives and girlfriends.

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The text accompanying the above image (one of a series of three) reads:

“When pretty Joan Hopkins was still standing behind the ribbon counter of a 5 & 10 cts. store on 3rd Avenue in New York City, she never dreamed of ever seeing the interior of a duplex Park Avenue apartment. Neither did young Bob Harrison, the man she loves. Bob was drafted and sent to the battlefields in Europe thousands of miles away from her. Through Lazare’s Employment Agency, Joan got a job as private secretary with wily Sam Levy. Sam is piling up big money on war contracts. Should the slaughter end very soon, he would suffer an apoplectic stroke.

Now Joan knows what Bob and his pals are fighting for.

Joan always used to look up to Bob as the guiding star of her life, and she was still a good girl when she started working for Sam Levy. But she often got the blues thinking of Bob, whom she hadn’t seen for over two years. Her boss had an understanding heart and was always very kind to her, so kind indeed, that he often invited her up to his place. He had always wanted to show her his “etchings”. Besides, Sam wasn’t stingy and each time Joan came to see him, he gave her the nicest presents. Now, all women like beautiful and expensive things. But Sam wasn’t the man you could play for a sucker. He wanted something, wanted it very definitely…

Poor little Joan! She is still thinking of Bob, yet she is almost hoping that he’ll never return.

Notwithstanding its lack of subtlety, the leaflet above actually has several interesting features. Firstly, we can see Nazi anti-Semitism creeping in in the form of the corrupt and obviously Jewish ‘Sam Levy’ character. Disturbingly interwoven with the basic appeal to sexual jealousy is a narrative of a Jewish capitalist conspiracy to keep the war going because of profitable arms contracts, regardless of how many young and wholesome ‘Bob Harrison’ types die on the battlefield.

Secondly, the leaflet is surprisingly well-written and well-researched. The author went to the trouble of researching topics like ‘5 & 10 cents stores’, where the most desirable property in New York was to be had, and so on. As far as I can tell, the writer has captured the colloquial American English of the time rather well. The colloquial language on the leaflets aimed at British troops is also pretty good – only the odd whiff of German sentence structure gives away that fact that it was probably written by a German.

The British were also subject to this sort of propaganda, aimed at arousing romantic and sexual jealousy, and thus a desire for the war to end. The leaflets play on a familiar complaint among British troops: that American soldiers with lots of disposable income were coming over to Britain and seducing British women with their money and easygoing charm. Unlike the ridiculous anti-Semitic caricature of the Wall Street Jew seducing his secretary, the leaflets aimed at making British soldiers jealous of their American comrades actually contained an element of truth.

GIs flooded into Britain in their thousands in the latter part of the war, and many British women (both single and married) responded positively to their advances, whether out of affection, loneliness, or the desire for a few cigarettes and a pair of real silk stockings. However, these leaflets alone were hardly enough to make the British army rise up in a rage against their American allies. We can never say just how effective leaflet propaganda was, but it does seem likely that it would have played at least some part in dampening enemy morale, especially if it was already low.



Walt Disney’s “The Making of the Nazi” (1943)

In 1943, Walt Disney produced a 10-minute animation purporting to document the process by which German children were turned into “perfect little Nazis”. The aim was to demonstrate to the American populace how the Nazis were indoctrinating their sons with the aim of creating an army totally loyal to Hitler. The resulting soldiers are good for nothing but “marching and heiling”, according to the narrator. Anti-Catholicism, book burnings and goose-stepping are all featured. There is even a purported Nazi cartoon; a very strange version of Sleeping Beauty featuring Hitler as the prince and ‘Germany’, dressed up as a Valkyrie with a beer tankard, as the princess. The finished product is a surreal, amusing yet disturbing combination of fact and fiction.

Benjamin Britten and WW2 propaganda

My choir is singing a lot of Britten this term, as it is his 100th anniversary. Most of our repertoire would be fairly well-known to Britten fans, but one very strange piece came as a surprise to me: ‘Advance Democracy’. It was written in response to the Munich Crisis of 1938, when the Allies, in a failed act of appeasement, permitted Germany to annex the Sudetenland.

Britten, who was deeply committed to left-wing causes at the time, believed that democratic governments had betrayed their people for failing to oppose fascism, notwithstanding Neville Chamberlain’s assurance that the Munich Agreement meant “peace for our time”. The text of ‘Advance Democracy’, written by the left-wing poet Randall Swingler, expresses the subsequent fear and disappointment. Although the text was in opposition to official government policy in 1938, during World War Two it accorded perfectly with British sentiments so I assume it would have been used as an appropriately patriotic propaganda song.

Notwithstanding one or two notable recordings, the piece has largely dwindled into obscurity, probably because of Randall Swingler’s rather dreadful lyrics. The music critic Michael Kennedy attacks both composer and poet, maintaining that “even more expertise [than Britten’s] was needed to give any kind of musical credibility to a setting for Swingler’s dreadful doggerel in Advance Democracy”. Harry Christophers, choral director of The Sixteen, labels the text “almost embarassingly earnest”, notwithstanding his defence of the musical setting as “great fun” and “a real showpiece”. No love lost for Randall Swingler, then.

I would say that, unfortunately, Harry Christophers is right; despite Britten’s best efforts and Swingler’s evident enthusiasm, the sheer awfulness of the poetry cannot be forgotten; it is difficult to keep a straight face when singing, at least in the first few sing-throughs. The high point is surely the call to arms at the end, where the music bursts suddenly into a triumphant C major which ends the piece.


Across the darkened city
The frosty searchlights creep
Alert for the first marauder
To steal upon our sleep.

We see the sudden headlines
Float on the muttering tide
We hear them warn and threaten
And wonder what they hide.

There are whispers across tables,
Talks in a shutter’d room.
The price on which they bargain
Will be a people’s doom.

There’s a roar of war in the factories
And idle hands on the street
And Europe held in nightmare
By the thud of marching feet.

Now sinks the sun of surety,
The shadows growing tall
Of the big bosses plotting
Their biggest coup of all.

Is there no strength to save us?
No power we can trust
Before our lives and liberties
Are powder’d into dust.

Time to arise, Democracy!
Time to rise up and cry
That what our fathers fought for
We’ll not allow to die!

Time to resolve divisions,
Time to renew our pride,
Time to decide
Time to burst our house of glass.

Rise as a single being
In one resolve arrayed:
Life shall be for the people
That’s by the people made!

The SS Guide to Great Britain

SS officer Walter Schellenberg

In June 1940, the French government surrendered to the German army at Compiègne. British morale was low, and Hitler hoped that the British government would soon cave in, cowed by the French defeat. Meanwhile, he was also drawing up plans for a potential invasion of Britain, known in English as ‘Operation Sealion’. There is still controversy as to whether the invasion plans were serious or just a bluff, and it’s unclear whether Operation Sealion would have succeeded had it gone ahead. Several senior German military figures later said that it would have proved near impossible due to the superiority of British air and naval power. At any rate, plans to invade appear to have been serious enough that the SS officer Walter Schellenberg was tasked with preparing an informative handbook about Britain. 20,000 copies of the resulting Informationsheft GB were published, to be given to German officers in the event of an invasion. The idea was that having access to a detailed picture of contemporary Britain would help German officers to easily target hostile individuals and organisations.

SS officer Walter Schellenberg
SS officer Walter Schellenberg

The information in the handbook came partly from British newspapers, partly from leaked intelligence. It included analyses of British geography, government, legal system, military, education system, museums and culture, press and radio, religion, demography, Jews, police apparatus and secret service. It went into astonishing detail; for example, information on politicians was not limited to name and party, but included photos, home addresses, and even their hobbies. Factual assessment was punctuated by Schellenberg’s own observations, which ranged from the astute to the paranoid. Schellenberg noted perceptively of the independent school system that ‘the one half of a percent of children who attend public schools will eventually occupy about 80% of all important social important and political posts’, and advised German officers not to bother putting their children down for Eton as it was fully subscribed until 1949.

Other sections of the handbook, influenced by typical Nazi paranoia about any non-National Socialist organisation, were less objectively reliable. They contained assertions that the Boy Scout organisation was a covert spying operation for MI5 and MI6, and that the YMCA was dominated by Jewish Freemasons and could prove ‘a dangerous weapon in the hands of British plutocrats against National Socialist Germany’. Unsurprisingly, these organisations would be among the first to be banned, coinciding with the arrests of their leaders.

Boy Scouting: "A disguised instrument of power for British cultural propaganda"
Boy Scouting: “A disguised instrument of power for British cultural propaganda”
"An excellent recruiting ground for British Intelligence Services"
“An excellent recruiting ground for British Intelligence Services”

Attached to the main handbook was a ‘most-wanted’ list of 2,820 prominent individuals to be immediately arrested in the event of a successful invasion. It was similar to earlier lists prepared by the SS, such as the Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen which was a list of 61,000 Polish ‘enemies of the Reich’ (mainly the upper classes and the intelligentsia) to be targeted by Einsatzgruppen. The British equivalent included politicians, activists and writers such as Charles de Gaulle, E.M. Forster, Aldous Huxley, Sylvia Pankhurst, Neville Chamberlain, Nikolaus Pevsner, Bertrand Russell, Winston Churchill, H.G. Wells and Virginia Woolf. The list actually contained serious mistakes – it included some people who were already dead (Sigmund Freud, Lytton Strachey) and some who had moved away (Paul Robeson).

After the war, a version of this list was published separately from the main handbook. To be on it was a source of some pride; Noel Coward wrote ‘if anyone had told me at that time I was high up on the Nazi blacklist, I should have laughed. I remember Rebecca West, who shared the honour with me, sent a telegram which read: ‘My dear – the people we should have been seen dead with”. By contrast, not to be on the list could be humiliating. When George Bernard Shaw and David Lloyd George found out that not only were they not on it, but were listed as ‘Friends of the Reich’, they were utterly mortified. Shaw’s ‘friendly’ status came from a throwaway remark in which he maintained ‘we should make peace with him [Hitler] instead of making more mischief and ruining our people instead’. David Lloyd George was considered a potential supporter because he’d often observed that Hitler ‘is indeed a great man…a born leader, yes a statesman’.

David Lloyd George - 'Friend of the Reich'?
David Lloyd George – ‘Friend of the Reich’?

Unsurprisingly for an author obsessed with race, the handbook was interspersed with notes on the British national character. Like many other high-ranking Nazis, Schellenberg was actually something of an Anglophile. A large number of Nazis saw the British as a fellow Germanic people who had lost their way under decadent liberalism. Although Hitler had previously called some of the British working class ‘racially inferior’, this was not an epithet reserved for the population at large; it’s very different from the Nazi stance on Eastern Europeans, whom they regarded as sub-human. Schellenberg writes that ‘the contradictory and arbitrary characteristics of the British have achieved mastery through tradition and experience, favoured by certain attributes of their national character – unscrupulousness, self-discipline, cool calculation and ruthless action’. Rather ironically, it was the Nazis who were to be remembered by the British for their ‘unscrupulousness’, ‘cool calculation’ and ‘ruthless action’.

The Nazis percieved a close racial and cultural relationship between the British and German peoples
The Nazis percieved a close racial and cultural relationship between the British and German peoples