Europe

Art History Resources
Large collection of artworks, meticulously organised by country/culture of origin, date, artist and themes.

Artstor (subscription only)
Despite the challenge of rapidly expanding Google Art Project (see below), Artstor remains a good place to browse thousands of images in high detail.

Avalon Project
Maintained by the Yale Law School, here you will find documents focusing on law and diplomacy from 4000 BC to the present

Ashmolean Museum
An eclectic range of collections. As well as the usual section on Western art, there are collections specialising in timepieces, brass rubbings, silverware and finger rings.

Bibliothèque Bleue
Giving an insight into French popular culture from the 17th- to mid-19th century, this website contains digitised copies of texts ranging from the practical (recipes, almanacs, and how-to books) to the pious (hagiographies, prayer books, and other religious instruction), to the entertaining (fiction, romans de chevalerie, songbooks, burlesque).

Bodleian Library 
Early Manuscripts at Oxford University
Early Modern Letters Online
– Amazing collection of
digitised images and manuscripts from the Bodleian Libraries Special Collections

British Library
Search the collections of the British Library for maps, images, books, datasets, sounds and printed music.

British Museum
Over 2,000,000 records of objects in the British Museum collections, most of which have images. Features objects from all around the world, dating back to prehistoric times.

Digiberichte.de
Digitised travel accounts from late medieval and early modern Europe

Early Music Online
Curated by Royal Holloway, this collection holds images of some of the world’s oldest surviving volumes of printed music.

Electronic Enlightenment
60,000 documents of edited correspondence from the 17th-19th centuries, linking over 8000 people across Europe, the Americas and Asia. Letters discuss everything from religious tolerance to animal rights, vulcanology to classical archaeology, economic modelling to celebrity culture. Maintained by the University of Oxford’s Bodleian Libraries.

Eurodocs: Online sources for European history
Selection of primary sources covering most European countries, further filtered by era and specific topics. There is an extremely wide range of documents here, but it’s hard to predict what you will find. Perhaps a better site for coming across unexpected jewels whilst browsing, than for undertaking systematic research.

European Library
Searchable database of various European newspapers from 1618 to the present.

Gale Digital Collections (subscription only)
A fantastic resource. There are far too many collections to list individually; suffice it to say that there is an enormous range of primary sources covering global history since c.1100. If you are lucky enough to have access to the Gale Collections, do make use of them!

Ghetty Research Institute
Digitised manuscripts, books, prints and photos from the archives of the Ghetty Research Institute. Major collecting areas include: alchemy, festivals, orientalist photography, artists’ letters and sketchbooks.

Google Art Project
Over 40,000 high-resolution images of artworks ranging from oil-on-canvas to sculpture and furniture; constantly expanding.

Google Books
Digitised texts from university and specialist libraries all over the world. Genres other than fiction are well represented, with travelogues, historiographies, advice manuals, pamphlets and so on. Texts are downloadable as PDF and EPUB files; alternatively, they are viewable online in an intuitive format. Note: only the texts which are out of copyright are available as free downloads.

Google Ngram Viewer
This tool scans an immense number of books to tell you whether a word was in use at a particular time, and can also show you the relative popularity of words over time.

In Mozart’s words
Multilingual access to an annotated version of the voluminous correspondence of Mozart and his family – approximately 1,400 letters. Includes a database of all references to people, places and musical works contained in the letters, as well as access to background materials such as reviews, newspapers, documents, objects, paintings, engravings, and books.

Internet History Sourcebooks Project
Primary sources for the following categories: African history, East Asian history, Indian history, Islamic history, Jewish history, history of science, women’s history, and gay and lesbian history. Special collections include traveller’s accounts and legal history. Run by Fordham University.

JSTOR (subscription only)
Online collection which specialises in digitising the main humanities periodicals, usually covering all issues from the journal’s foundation to the most recent output.

Kyoto Costume Institute
This collection is relatively small, comprising only 200 objects, but each image is accompanied by a detailed description of the item and its historical context. The zoom function allows for breathtaking detail.

Library of Congress
The LoC’s digital collections offer a huge range of print, pictorial and audio-visual resources, ranging from – to name just a few examples –  historic American newspapers, to early sound recordings and photography, to the papers of famous individuals. (Note: do not confuse with the online library catalogue).

Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Images of art and textiles from all over the world, spanning a wide historical period.

Pitt Rivers Museum
The Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford features archaeological and anthropological collections from all over the world. The online collection covers objects, manuscripts, photographs, sound and film.

Project Gutenberg
Over 45,000 ebooks available. You can view texts as html, or download in plain text, EPUB and Kindle formats. Main focus is on classic fiction.

Texts from early modern philosophy
Fairly wide range of texts by major European philosophers from the 15th-19th centuries. Texts have been modified slightly: overly convoluted syntax has been simplified, glossaries of archaic words are provided, points are numbered, and so on. The philosophical ideas remain unchanged, however, and modifications are duly noted and explained. Links are provided to original copies of the texts. Now maintained by two academics at Hertford College, Oxford.

Vatican Library
The Vatican Library’s online offering is split into five collections: manuscripts, coins and medals, incunabula, graphic materials and art objects, and printed books.

Victoria and Albert Museum
Images of over a million objects and 500,000 art and design related images.

Weekday calculator
Find out what day of the week it was, for any date in any year.

Wikipedia illuminated manuscripts
Fairly wide selection of images from (mostly medieval) illuminated manuscripts. Useful if you need to find an image quickly, as the collection is very clearly organised by subject, century and country.